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英語閱讀材料:冠狀病毒會在汙染物表面存留多久?

2020-02-18教育

新型冠狀病毒引起的疫情已經持續一段時間了,然而目前醫學界對於新型冠狀病毒引發的肺炎的原因和過程還不完全了解,而我們普通人也很關心冠狀病毒究竟對我們的身體和環境究竟有多大影響,需要如何進行防護,即我們有很多需要學習和了解的新知識。作為英語學習者和愛好者,透過閱讀英語新聞報道來獲取相關的知識,同時學習和運用英語,即把知識學習和語言運用結合起來是非常好的英語學習的方法。今天選擇的這篇英語文獻報道非常適合我們學習關於冠狀病毒傳播途徑的知識,同時,我們也可以透過真實的語言套用,閱讀即時的有意義的新聞報道來檢驗和提高英語閱讀理解能力。在使用中學習,在學習中使用,是非常便捷高效的英語學習方法。以下是一篇最新釋出的英語新聞報道,主要內容是關於的冠狀病毒會在汙染物表面存留多久的問題,包含大量的關於新冠病毒的醫學知識,是大多數人非常關心的問題,具有很強的知識普及性和實用價值。同時,這篇報道還具有好強的可讀性,尤其是對於英語學習者和愛好者來說,例如,新聞報道的段落特征,一段只有一句話,書面語比較多,概括醫學常用的術語,句型復現率比較明顯等,為我們學習和套用英語提供了比較好的樣本。為便於有興趣的讀者在較短的時間內就所關註的內容進行有效閱讀,把所選的新聞報道做了一些刪減,並提供了詞匯釋義、難句解析和全文轉譯,供參考。

英語閱讀材料:冠狀病毒會在汙染物表面存留多久?

Here's how long coronaviruses may linger on contaminated surfaces, according to science

Concerns are mounting about how long the novel coronavirus may survive on surfaces -- so much so that the central bank has taken measures to deep clean and destroy its cash, which changes hands multiple times a day, in an effort to contain the virus.

It is unknown exactly how long the novel coronavirus can linger on contaminated surfaces and objects with the potential of infecting people, but some researchers are finding clues by studying the elusive behaviors of other coronaviruses.

Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses common among animals. In rare cases, they are what scientists call zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted from animals to humans,according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Officials do not know what animal may have caused the current outbreak of novel coronavirus. But previously, studies have suggested that people were infected with the coronavirus MERS, or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, after coming in contact with camels, and scientists have suspected that civet cats were to blame for SARS, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.

These human coronaviruses, such as SARS and MERS, have been found to persist on inanimate surfaces -- including metal, glass or plastic surfaces -- for as long as nine days if that surface had not been disinfected, according to research published earlier this month in The Journal of Hospital Infection.

Cleaning with common household products can make a difference, according to the research, which also found that human coronaviruses "can be efficiently inactivated by surface disinfection procedures with 62-71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite" or bleach within one minute.

The new research involved analyzing 22 previously published studies on coronaviruses, which researchers hope can help provide insight into the novel coronavirus.

"Based on the current available data, I would primarily rely on the data from SARS coronavirus, which is the closest relative to the novel coronavirus -- with 80% sequence similarity -- among the coronaviruses tested. For SARS coronavirus, the range of persistence on surfaces was less than five minutes to nine days," said Dr. Charles Chiu, an infectious disease professor at the University of California, San Francisco, and director of the USCF-Abbott Viral Diagnostics and Discovery Center, who was not involved in the new study.

"However, it is very difficult to extrapolate these findings to the novel coronavirus due to the different strains, viral titers and environmental conditions that were tested in the various studies and the lack of data on the novel coronavirus itself," he said. "More research using cultures of the novel coronavirus are needed to establish the duration that it can survive on surfaces."

The CDC has noted that coronaviruses are thought to spread most often by respiratory droplets, such as droplets in a cough or sneeze, and coronaviruses in general have "poor survivability" on surfaces -- but there is still much to learn about the novel coronavirus disease, named COVID-19.

"It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads," according to the CDC's website.

If you do have concerns, "my recommendations would be frequent hand-washing, avoiding contact with people who are sick, follow home quarantine recommendations according to the latest public health agency guidelines if you were in contact with a known or suspected infected patient," Chiu said.

But overall, "it is still far more likely that you contract influenza rather than this novel coronavirus, meaning that you should get vaccinated for influenza as well."

英語閱讀材料:冠狀病毒會在汙染物表面存留多久?

一、詞匯釋義:

coronavirus:冠狀病毒

linger:持續存留

contaminate:汙染

mount:逐步增加

contain:抑制

potential:潛在可能性

infect:感染

clue:線索

elusive:難以解釋的

zoonotic:人畜共患

transmit:傳播

respiratory:呼吸系統的

syndrome:症候群

suspect:懷疑

civet cat:果子貍

acute:急性的

persist:持續存在

inanimate:無(非)生命的

disinfect:消毒

efficiently:高效地

inactivated:滅活,(使)失去活性

procedure:過程,程式

ethanol:乙醇

hydrogen:氫氣

peroxide:過氧化物

sodium:鈉

hypochlorite:次氯酸鹽

bleach:漂白

involve:包括;涉及

previously:先前,以前

insight:深刻理解

current:現有的

available:可獲得的

primarily:主要地

sequence:序列

similarity:相似

persistence:持續存在

viral:病毒的

diagnostics:診斷學

extrapolate:推斷

strain:譜系

titer:滴度

culture:培養(細胞/細菌)

droplet:飛沫

cough:咳嗽

sneeze:噴嚏

survivability:生存性

frequent:頻繁的

quarantine:隔離

agency:機構

contract:感染

influenza:流感

vaccinate:給…接種疫苗

英語閱讀材料:冠狀病毒會在汙染物表面存留多久?

二、難句解析:

1. Concerns are mounting about how long the novel coronavirus may survive on surfaces -- so much so that the central bank has taken measures to deep clean and destroy its cash, which changes hands multiple times a day, in an effort to contain the virus.

本句是典型的具有新聞報道特征的句子,一句話一個段落,資訊明確,中心突出,雖然句子貌似偏長,但如果經常閱讀類似的句型可以做到快速抓取句子結構的核心,獲取重要資訊。句型特征:主謂語合計只有三個詞,但各自的修飾成分都比較長,形成巢狀結構:

1.1. Concerns are mounting about how long the novel coronavirus may survive on surfaces —— concerns是主語,其定語是介詞接賓語從句結構about how long the novel coronavirus may survive on surfaces,後置於謂語are mounting,形成句子後續成分偏長偏多即句子後部資訊荷重的英語常用表達方式。

1.2. -- so much so that the central bank has taken measures to deep clean and destroy its cash…, in an effort to contain the virus —— 破折號表示進一步解釋說明,無特別語法意義,so much so that是常用的連線詞組,修飾主句的謂語are mounting,表示程度,引導狀語從句,其中,in an effort介詞短語在狀語從句中作狀語,由非限定性定語分隔。

1.3. which changes hands multiple times a day —— 非限定性定語從句修飾cash。

2. "However, it is very difficult to extrapolate these findings to the novel coronavirus due to the different strains, viral titers and environmental conditions that were tested in the various studies and the lack of data on the novel coronavirus itself," he said.

本句體現出新聞報道的另一特征,即參照資訊來源或相關專業人員的話。句型特征:it is… to do… 是形式主語結構,是英語最基本的句型之一,同樣是用於句子後部資訊荷重的表達方式,便於後續疊加修飾成分,與漢語有較大差別,需要給予特別關註:

2.1.however —— 副詞,承接上段,起過渡作用。

2.2. it is very difficult to extrapolate these findings to the novel coronavirus —— 形式主語結構,實際主語是動詞不定式to extrapolate these findings to the novel coronavirus,其中,extrapolate… to…是動詞和介詞的搭配使用,表示把… 推斷為…。

2.3. due to the different strains, viral titers and environmental conditions that were tested in the various studies and the lack of data on the novel coronavirus itself —— due to 形容詞加介詞固定搭配,引導四個並列賓語作狀語,其中that were tested in the various studies是定語從句修飾strains、conditions和conditions 三個並列詞,on the novel coronavirus itself是介詞短語作定語修飾data,為便於理解可簡化如下:due to the different strains, viral titers and environmental conditions… and the lack of data…。

3. But overall, "it is still far more likely that you contract influenza rather than this novel coronavirus, meaning that you should get vaccinated for influenza as well."

本句的要點在於虛擬語氣的使用,在某些詞匯後,如,likely、important、 vital、essential、necessary、desirable接形式主語或賓語從句等,需要註意從句的謂語應該使用過去式的情態助動詞,如,should、would、could等。

3.1. it is still far more likely that you contract influenza… —— 本句是形式主語結構,實際主語是that引導的從句,同時,本句由於使用了likely要求其後的從句采用虛擬語氣,即it is likely that… (should) do…,從句的謂語需要使用should等情態助動詞加動詞原形的形式,其中情態助動詞可省略。

3.2. rather than —— 表示轉折,常作為獨立的詞組使用,此句中,than和比較級more沒有直接關系。

3.3. meaning that you should get vaccinated for influenza as well —— 現在分詞短語接賓語從句作狀語修飾主句。

譯文:

根據科學,這就是冠狀病毒可能在汙染物表面上持續存留的時間

人們越來越擔心新型冠狀病毒能在表面存活多久 —— 以至於為了努力控制病毒,央行已經采取措施對每天轉手多次的現金進行深度清理並銷毀。

目前還不清楚新型冠狀病毒在汙染物的表面和可能感染人類的物體上究竟能存留多久,但一些研究人員正在透過研究其他冠狀病毒難以捉摸的習性來尋找線索。

冠狀病毒是動物中常見的大病毒群。據美國疾病控制和預防中心稱,在極少數情況下,這類病毒導致科學家所稱的人畜共患,也就意味著可以導致動物把病毒傳染給人類。

官方還不知道究竟是什麽動物可能導致目前新型冠狀病毒的爆發。但此前的研究表明,人們是在與駱駝接觸後感染了與冠狀病毒相似的中東呼吸症候群,而科學家曾經懷疑果子貍是SARS嚴重急性呼吸系統症候群的罪魁禍首。

根據本月初發表在【醫院感染雜誌】上的研究,人們發現如果不對無生命的表面(包括金屬、玻璃或塑膠表面)進行消毒,諸如SARS和MERS的人冠狀病毒可以在上面持續存留9天。

根據這項研究,使用普通家用產品進行清潔可以起到很大作用,同時這項研究還發現,人冠狀病毒"可以透過使用62-71%的乙醇、0.5%的過氧化氫或0.1%的次氯酸鈉"進行表面消毒即可在一分鐘內有效予以滅活。

新的研究包括對以往發表的22項關於冠狀病毒研究的分析,研究人員希望透過這些研究可以幫助加深對於新型冠狀病毒的認識。

"根據目前所能得到的數據,在已經檢測的冠狀病毒中,我將主要依靠與新型冠狀病毒最接近SARS冠狀病毒的數據(80%的序列相似)開展研究。就SARS冠狀病毒而言,其表面持續存留的時間範圍為少於5分鐘到9天,"加州大學舊金山分校傳染病教授、USCF-Abbott病毒診斷和發現中心察爾斯·邱主任說,不過他並沒有參與這項新的研究。

"然而,由於各種不同研究中檢測的菌株、病毒滴度和環境條件都不相同,以及缺乏關於新型冠狀病毒本身的數據,很難將這些發現推斷為新型冠狀病毒,"他說。"需要利用新型冠狀病毒的培養物來做更多的研究以確定新型冠狀病毒能夠在表面持續存留的時間。

CDC指出,人們通常認為冠狀病毒是透過呼吸道飛沫進行傳播,如咳嗽或打噴嚏產生的飛沫,而一般說來冠狀病毒表面"生存力差",但有關這種名為COVID-19的新型冠狀病毒疾病仍有許多地方需要了解。

根據CDC的網站,"人有可能透過觸摸染有病毒的表面或物體,然後再觸摸自己的嘴、鼻子,或者可能是眼睛,感染COVID-19,但這不是病毒傳播的主要途徑。

如果你確實有顧慮,"我的建議是經常洗手,避免與病人接觸,如果接觸了已知或疑似感染的病人,要根據最新的公共衛生機構指南遵循居家隔離建議,"邱說。

但總體而言,"你仍然更有可能感染的是流感,而不是新型冠狀病毒,這意味著你也應該接種流感疫苗。